Article Title: Infertility considerations in Klinefelter syndrome: From origin to management
Authors: Deebel, Bradshaw, and Sadri-Ardekani
Date of Publication: December 15, 2020
“Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is defined as the presence of one or more extra “X” chromosome in a male patient. It affects approximately 1 in 600 newborn males and the most common chromosomal abnormality, leading to male hypogonadism and infertility. There is a lack of data supporting best practices for KS patients’ care. In this paper we review controversial issues in KS research ranging from mechanisms of variation in KS phenotype to abnormalities resulting in reduced sperm production to successful sperm retrieval disparities after testicular sperm extraction (TESE). Translation to live birth and offspring health is also examined. Finally, medical therapies used to optimize the hormonal status and chances of fertility in KS patients are reviewed. We will also discuss the experimental spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) treatments, which are considered the future for TESE negative patients.”
Article Title: Klinefelter syndrome (KS): genetics, clinical phenotype and hypogonadism
Authors: Bonomi, Rochira, Pasquali, Balercia, Jannini, and Ferlin
Date of Publication: September 19, 2016
“Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) is characterized by an extreme heterogeneity in its clinical and genetic presentation. The relationship between clinical phenotype and genetic background has been partially disclosed; nevertheless, physicians are aware that several aspects concerning this issue are far to be fully understood. By improving our knowledge on the role of some genetic aspects as well as on the KS, patients’ interindividual differences in terms of health status will result in a better management of this chromosomal disease. The aim of this review is to provide an update on both genetic and clinical phenotype and their interrelationships.”
Article Title: Strategies to improve early diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome
Authors: Alberto Ferlin
Date of Publication: October 2020
“Klinefelter syndrome is the most frequent chromosome disorder in men, but it is largely undiagnosed or receives a late diagnosis in adulthood. This condition is characterized by an extra X-chromosome: approximately 80%-90% of patients with Klinefelter syndrome have a 47,XXY karyotype, 10%-20% mosaicisms of two different genetic lines such as 47,XXY/46,XY, isochromosome X, and higher number of X chromosomes. Although our knowledge on this syndrome substantially improved in last years, the diagnostic rate is still low. It has been estimated that only 25% to 40% of subjects with 47,XXY Klinefelter syndrome are ever diagnosed. A prenatal diagnosis is made in 15–20% of these cases, 10% is diagnosed before puberty, 15% at puberty, and the remaining 50–60% of cases are diagnosed during adulthood, typically in the course of a fertility workup, with some cases diagnosed even after the age of 50 or 60 years. Variants with higher number of X chromosomes (48,XXXY and 49,XXXXY) have more severe phenotype and distinct clinical features, which leads to higher diagnostic rate than 47,XXY. This manuscript refers to the most common form 47,XXY syndrome and strategies to improve early and timely diagnosis.”
In 2015, the AXYS Board of Directors voted to approve the development of the AXYS Clinical and Research Consortium (ACRC). The two goals that AXYS defined at that time were to improve the availability and the quality of services to the X&Y variation community. As the ACRC grew, the original goals were refined to be as follows:
Make life easier for those seeking evaluation and treatment.
Bring consistency to treatment that is consensus and/or evidence-based.
Advance the overall X&Y variation field through coordinated efforts including research.
Bring clinical excellence to the field of X&Y variations.
Though each clinic operates independently, as members of a consortium, they collaborate with one another, share informational resources, and have the opportunity to participate in joint research projects.
In addition, AXYS organizes annual meetings of the consortium at which members meet to discuss topics important to the X&Y chromosome variation community. AXYS works to ensure that all families impacted by any of the chromosome variations have access to the best available evaluation and treatment or treatment recommendations.
Timeline of the ACRC
(Click on the year to see the accomplishments for that year.)