“The Klinefelter Syndrome: Current Management and Research Challenges”—From the scientific journal, Andrology, this article summarizes the concluding “Round Table Discussion” of the 2nd International Workshop on the Klinefelter Syndrome in Munster, Germany, March, 2016. Topics include syndrome characteristics, centers of competence for diagnosis and treatment, counseling, support groups, early screening, fertility, testosterone treatment, and basic research. Click here.
“Expanding the Phenotype of Triple X Syndrome: A Comparison of Prenatal Versus Postnatal Diagnosis” —This cross-sectional study was published in the American Journal of Medical Genetics. It describes the diagnosis, physical aspects, medical problems, and neurodevelopmental features in a large cohort of females with 47, XXX. Click here.
Guide to Trisomy X (booklet)
Date of Publication: 2011
Kathleen Erskine, a graduate student in the Joan H. Marks Graduate Program in Human Genetics at Sarah Lawrence College conducted a study to identify the important aspects of 47, XXX/ 3X/ Triple X/ Trisomy X to discuss with girls when they first learn about their Trisomy X diagnosis. The end result of this study is this educational booklet for parents to give their daughter when they first tell her about Trisomy X.
Recommended Reading: Tips From Parents and Adults for the benefit of others
- Rules (2006) by Cynthia Lord, a book for “sisters”
More about the book
About the Author
- Being the Other One: Growing Up with a Brother or Sister Who Has Special Needs (2005) by Kate Strohm, a book for parents and siblings
More about the book
About the Author
Note: These are unofficial recommendations from parents who have found these books, articles, websites and other resources helpful in some way. When possible, we will provide an Amazon.com link for ease of purchase, a link to the description of the book, and a link to a description of the author. Unless otherwise stated, AXYS is not involved in the sale, and we recommend that you shop around before making your purchase.
To me, this is one of the “gold standard” research articles on 47,xxy neurocognitive implications. It contains pretty intense medical terminology but it would be recognized as excellent resource/reference material by physicians, educators, the courts, etc. It should help parents and others understand there are absolutely biological issues involved with potential problem behaviors that may be happening with someone that is 47,xxy.
Date of Publication: June 30, 2011
Dr. Poochellam Muthalagu looks the primary and secondary reasons for hypogonadism and examines the different treatments available in this country.
Male hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome defined by low testosterone levels associated with sexual dysfunction, particularly diminished libido, mood disturbances, reduced lean body mass and increased adipose tissue mass.
A wide range of effective and well-tolerated treatment options exist. These include testosterone (T) gels and T patches. There is also a mucoadhesive sustained-release buccal tablet, but this is not available in Ireland. Intramuscular testosterone injections and subcutaneous depot implants (T pellets) are still the standard therapy.
Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) can be individualised to enhance patient health and wellbeing. Screening and ongoing monitoring are necessary to ensure both the efficacy and safety of TRT, particularly prostate safety. Investigational agents, including selective androgen receptor modulators, may offer new pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic properties that enhance outcomes of TRT.
Male hypogonadism is defined as the failure of the testes to produce androgen, sperm or both. Although the disorder is exceedingly common, its exact prevalence is uncertain.
Testosterone production declines with advancing age; some 20 per cent of men older than 60 years and 30-40 per cent of men older than 80 years have serum testosterone levels that would be subnormal in their younger adult male counterparts.
This apparent physiologic decline in circulating androgen levels is compounded in frequency by permanent disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. These include the transient deficiency states associated with acute stressful illnesses, such as surgery and myocardial infarction, and the more chronic deficiency states associated with wasting illnesses, such as cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The term Klinefelter syndrome (KS) describes a group of chromosomal disorder in which there is at least one extra X chromosome to a normal male karyotype, 46,XY. XXY aneuploidy is the most common disorder of sex chromosomes in humans, with prevalence of one in 500 males. Other sex chromosomal aneuploidies have also been described, although they are much less frequent, with 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY being present in 1 per 17,000 to 1 per 50,000 male births. The incidence of 49,XXXXY is 1 per 85,000 to 100,000 male births. In addition, 46,XX males also exist and it is caused by translocation of Y material including sex determining region (SRY) to the X chromosome during paternal meiosis. Formal cytogenetic analysis is necessary to make a definite diagnosis, and more obvious differences in physical features tend to be associated with increasing numbers of sex chromosomes. If the diagnosis is not made prenatally, 47,XXY males may present with a variety of subtle clinical signs that are age-related. In infancy, males with 47,XXY may have chromosomal evaluations done for hypospadias, small phallus or cryptorchidism, developmental delay. The school-aged child may present with language delay, learning disabilities, or behavioral problems. The older child or adolescent may be discovered during an endocrine evaluation for delayed or incomplete pubertal development with eunuchoid body habitus, gynecomastia, and small testes. Adults are often evaluated for infertility or breast malignancy. Androgen replacement therapy should begin at puberty, around age 12 years, in increasing dosage sufficient to maintain age appropriate serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The effects on physical and cognitive development increase with the number of extra Xs, and each extra X is associated with an intelligence quotient (IQ) decrease of approximately 15–16 points, with language most affected, particularly expressive language skills.
In response to:
“New Tests for Newborns, And Dilemmas for Parents” by Amy Dockser Marcus
Wall Street Journal, July 26, 2011
AXYS submitted this letter to the editor:
“AXYS serves individuals who have one of the most prevalent and yet confoundingly unknown genetic conditions, sex chromosome aneuploidy. The most common of these conditions is 47,XXY, also known as Klinefelter Syndrome. There are many other aneuploidies, affecting 1 in 500 males and females in total. Life is certainly worth living for these individuals. Early diagnosis leads to effective interventions that vastly improve lives, yet the majority of individuals with these conditions go undiagnosed for years—even a lifetime. Misdiagnosis and resulting mistreatment are common and lead to unwarranted suffering. One man spent 52 years diagnosed with bipolar disorder only to discover by accident he is 47,XXY. He was transformed from suicidal to exuberant when he received the right treatments. Undiagnosed individuals are susceptible to myriad comorbid conditions, such as heart disease and cancers, which can strike by surprise. Those with an accurate diagnosis can watch for and address these problems before they become life-threatening. AXYS strongly urges rapid development and deployment of early diagnostic testing to detect these conditions. In the case of X and Y chromosome variations, ignorance most definitely is NOT bliss.”
Please support our effort by submitting your letter to the Wall Street Journal at these two email addresses:
AXYS was founded on the response to a letter to Ann Landers sent by our founder, Melissa Aylstock. David Drexler, a long-time volunteer with AXYS and member of our communications committee, has written a beautiful, compelling letter to Dear Abby. Please write to Dear Abby and share your letter with us.
I’m writing you today to alert your readers to chromosome anomalies that affect one in five hundred people, male and female. Although they are the most common of the chromosome anomalies they are also seldom diagnosed, most often by amniocentesis or in a fertility workup.
Every cell of a normal body has 23 pairs of chromosomes and on those chromosomes are the genes that control who and what we are. The sex chromosomes (23rd pair) dictate sex. A normal male has XY chromosomes and a normal female has XX. For reasons we don’t know, in some cases there are more than two sex chromosomes with an extra X, called 47,XXY or just XXY. There can also be more than two Xs and more than one Y for example trisomy X or 47,XXX.