Article Title: Epigenetics and genomics in Klinefelter syndrome

Authors: Skakkebæk, Viuff, Nielsen, and Gravholt

Date of Publication: June 2, 2020

“Since the first description of Klinefelter syndrome (KS) was published in 1942 in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology, large inter‐individual variability in the phenotypic presentation has been demonstrated. However, our understanding of the global impact of the additional X chromosome on the genome remains an enigma. Evidence from the existing literature of KS indicates that not just one single genetic mechanism can explain the phenotype and the variable expressivity, but several mechanisms may be at play concurrently. In this review, we describe different genetic mechanisms and recent advances in the understanding of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome of KS and the link to the phenotype and clinical heterogeneity. Future studies are needed to unite clinical data, genomic data, and basic research attempting to understand the genetics behind KS. Unraveling the genetics of KS will be of clinical relevance as it may enable the use of polygenic risk scores to predict future disease susceptibility and enable clinical risk stratification of KS patients in the future.”

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