Most children and adolescents whose development is affected by having an X or Y variation are eligible for special education services. A federal law, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) includes a variety of safeguards and options including Part C which provides for services to children birth to 3 years of age, and Part B which mandates a free public education for children with special needs who qualify from the ages of 3 to 21.

IDEA requires a multidisciplinary evaluation to determine if the child qualifies for special education services. This means that professionals from a variety of fields (medicine, psychology, occupational therapy, etc.) and the parents of the child collaborate to assess the child’s strengths and needs and determine appropriate educational services.

Every child eligible for special education has either an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP, for children birth to age 3), or an Individualized Education Program (IEP, for children age 3-21). Both programs specify the details of a child’s educational plan.

Intervention varies and is based upon the child’s individual needs. Areas that may be addressed include: speech and language, cognition, behavior, sensory-motor and academics. Settings range from home-based programs for infants to a variety of school-based classrooms for older children and adolescents.


This section provides a series of links to other resources that may be useful to some persons dealing with X and/or Y aneuploidy conditions (see definition below). AXYS is aware that there is wide variability in the signs and symptoms associated with these conditions and not everyone will require the same resources. However, we’re hopeful that a number of these resources may be useful to a significant percentage of this population.

• ADHD Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: XXY, XXX, XYY, and XXYY

• Everything You Never Knew About the ADHD Brain

• Secrets of the ADHD Brain: Why We Think, Act, and Feel the Way We Do

• The Brain-Behavior Connection In Children with ADHD

• IDEA—the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act | Center for Parent Information and Resources

• Understanding Tests and Measurements for the Parent and Advocate

• National Center for Learning Disabilities

• Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA)

• Think College – College Options for People with Intellectual Disability

• PACER Center

• Wrightslaw: Special Education Law, 2nd Edition
By Peter W.D. Wright & Pamela Darr Wright

• Special Education Law, 3rd Edition
By Nikki L. Murdick & Barbara C. Gartin, et al.

• Steps to Independence: Teaching Everyday Skills to Children with Special Needs
By Bruce L. Baker & Alan J. Brightman

• 1001 Great Ideas for Teaching and Raising Children with Autism or Asperger’s, Revised and Expanded 2nd Edition
By Ellen Notbohm & Veronica Zysk, et al.

• Autism: Asserting Your Child’s Rights to a Special Education
By David A. Sherman

• Functional Behavior Assessment for People With Autism: Making Sense of Seemingly Senseless Behavior
By Beth A. Glasberg

• Inclusive Programming for High School Students with Autism or Asperger’s Syndrome: Making Inclusion Work for Everyone! [Paperback]
By Sheila Wagner

• The Power to Spring Up: Postsecondary Education Opportunities for Students with Significant Disabilities
By Diana M. Katovitch

• Realizing the College Dream with Autism or Asperger Syndrome: A Parent’s Guide to Student Success
By Ann Palmer

• Self-Help Skills for People with Autism: A Systematic Teaching Approach
By Stephen R. Anderson, Amy L. Jablonski, et al.

• Visual Supports for People with Autism: A Guide for Parents and Professionals
By Marlene J. Cohen & Donna L. Sloan

• Individualized Education Program (IEP): Summary, Process, and Practical Tips

• OT, SLP, AT & The IEP… Making Sense of the Alphabet Soup

• IEP and 504 Accommodations

• New Guide Offers Road Map To IEP Process

• Understanding an IEP for Your Child – A Guide to the Individualized Education Program

Speaking of Speech: IEP Goal Bank

KidsHealth – IEPs

Kids Together, Inc. – IEPs

Bridges4Kids – IEP Goals and Objectives Bank

Wrightslaw (if page does not open in browser, remove “https” from the URL in the address bar)

• Wrightslaw: The Special Education Survival Guide: From Emotions to Advocacy, 2nd Edition
By Peter W. D. Wright & Pamela Darr Wright

Wrightslaw: All About IEPs
By Peter W. D. Wright and Pamela Darr Wright and Sandra Webb O’Connor

Wrightslaw: IDEA 2004
By Peter W.D. Wright and Pamela Darr Wright

The Complete IEP Guide: How to Advocate for Your Special Ed Child
By Lawrence M. Siegel

The Everyday Guide to Special Education Law
By Randy Chapman

IEP and Inclusion Tips for Parents and Teachers
By Anne I. Eason and Kathleen Whitbread

Nolo’s IEP Guide: Learning Disabilities
By Lawrence M. Siegel

Writing Measurable IEP Goals and Objectives
By Barbara D. Bateman and Cynthia Herr

• Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents and Teachers (4th Ed.)
By Winifred Anderson, Stephen R. Chitwood, et al.

The Goal Mine: Nuggets of Learning Goals and Objectives for Exceptional Children
By Donald Cahill and Maureen Cahill

About Homeschool

Home School Legal Defense Association

The Home School Mom

Homeschool Central (Additional resources for special needs)


Thank you to the National Fragile X Foundation for allowing AXYS to use this content.

The Benefits of Physical Education for Children with Special Needs

• Physical Education for Students with Disabilities: Wrightslaw (if page does not open in browser, remove “https” from the URL in the address bar)

• 7 Ways to Include a Student with Special Needs in Physical Education

• Adapted Physical Education Guidelines
Note: While these guidelines are specific to California schools, we think readers may find them helpful no matter where you live.

Apple in Education

Assistive Technology for Education – iOS /Android/Chrome Apps & Browser Extensions

Moms With Apps


(an·eu·ploi·dy) (an-yu-“ploi-dE)

In everyone’s body, each cell contains tiny twisted strings of molecules called chromosomes that contain genes, which in turn tell cells how they will grow and what they must do.  Typically, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 chromosomes in the aggregate), and each parent commonly contributes one chromosome to each pair.  These chromosomes are numbered and arranged when they are analyzed by labs in a test known as a karyotype.  The 23rd pair, for example, are known as the sex chromosome pair.  Except in certain instances of X and/or Y chromosome aneuploidy, a mother and father each contribute a single sex chromosome to the child. Thus, girls commonly have two X chromosomes (one from mother and one from father), while boys commonly have one X (from mother) and one Y (from father) chromosome.

Occasionally, a cell division anomaly known as “non-disjunction” may result in some (in the case of mosaicism) or all cells having 44, 45, 47, 48 or 49 chromosomes.  These chromosomal states in which one or more whole chromosomes are either missing or are present in more than the typical number are referred to as an “aneuploidy” or plural, as “aneuploidies.”

Special thanks to the National Fragile X Foundation for the use of some content.
Disclaimer: AXYS provides the above information to assist families and professionals in providing the best, possible educational experience for children with an X or Y variation. Inclusion in this list of resources does not imply endorsement by AXYS of any product or service and parents are encouraged to fully research products and services before making any commitments or purchases.