48,XXYY

/48,XXYY

Laurie Milton’s Story

Due to speech and language delays my son started in special education preschool. When my son entered kindergarten, his teacher saw similarities between Kent and another boy who was diagnosed with XXXXY. We took her advice and got genetic testing for our son.

We learned back in 1994 that our son did not just have one extra X as we suspected but has an extra X and an extra Y; he has XXYY.

Our doctors suggested we not read the older literature that painted a horrid picture for our son but instead told us to contact KS&A and join the support group. As it turned out, Melissa Alystock lived less than a mile from us. Our kids attended the same schools.

Melissa Alystock started holding conferences to gather people with X and Y variations together. She sought and received grants from pharmaceutical companies to support these events. In addition, she gained the professional support and services of health care professionals who met with families at these events. It was life changing for many to meet with a doctor, genetic counselor or other professional that was knowledgeable about X and Y conditions.

Melissa and her husband needed help managing this fast growing organization so she asked me to join the board and then I served as a moderator for the listserv. I saw the challenges trying to meet the needs of grown men with X and Y variations as well as simultaneously meeting the needs of parents of younger children without overwhelming them. There is only so much many of us can process at once, so some families step back from support groups but then later rejoin either when they need assistance or when they are in a position to offer it.

I financially support AXYS (The XXYY Project) and encourage my family to do so also. This assures there is help, information and research for all when it is needed.

2019-08-30T16:17:34-04:00Categories: 48,XXYY, All Variations|Tags: |

Social cognition and underlying cognitive mechanisms in children with an extra X chromosome: a comparison with autism spectrum disorder

Article Title: Social cognition and underlying cognitive mechanisms in children with an extra X chromosome: a comparison with autism spectrum disorder

Authors: S. van Rijn, L. Stockmann, G. van Buggenhout, C. van Ravenswaaij-Arts, and H. Swaab

Date of Publication: 2014

This 2014 paper by Dr. Sophie van Rijn is an excellent study on the Theory of Mind and “the reported social behavioral difficulties in individuals with an extra X chromosome include shyness, social withdrawal, social anxiety, social immaturity, difficulties in peer relationships, social impulsivity, communication difficulties, reduced social assertiveness and difficulties with ‘being sensitive and responsive to the feelings and rights of others.”

“Individuals with an extra X chromosome are at increased  risk for autism symptoms. This study is the first to assess theory of mind and facial affect labeling in children with an extra X chromosome.”

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2019-04-30T09:29:50-04:00Categories: 47,XXX (trisomy x), 47,XXY (Klinefelter), 48,XXYY, XXXY|

Autism Spectrum Disorder in Males with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: XXY/Klinefelter syndrome, XYY, and XXYY

Article Title: Autism Spectrum Disorder in Males with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: XXY/Klinefelter syndrome, XYY, and XXYY

Authors: Nicole R Tartaglia, MD, Rebecca Wilson, PsyD, Judith S. Miller, PhD, Jessica Rafalko, Lisa Cordeiro, MS, Shanlee Davis, MD, David Hessl, PhD, and Judith Ross, MD

Date of Publication: April 2017

“The rate of ASD in children with SCA in this study was higher than expected compared to the general population. Males with Y chromosome aneuploidy (XYY and XXYY) were 4.8 times more likely to have a diagnosis of ASD than the XXY/KS group, and 20 times more likely than males in the general population based on the 2010 Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimate of 1 in 42 males. ASD is an important consideration when evaluating social difficulties for children with SCA. Studies of males with SCA and Y-chromosome genes may provide insight into idiopathic ASD and male predominance in ASD.”

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2019-02-21T11:15:50-04:00Categories: 47,XXY (Klinefelter), 47,XYY, 48,XXYY|

Emory University Focuses on XXYY

July, 2018

One of the sex chromosome variations least understood is XXYY. While the prevalence is reported to be 1 in 18,000 to 1 in 40,000, these estimates are likely an inadequate representation of true prevalence owing to missed diagnosis and alternate diagnoses for developmental, learning and behavioral issues. While early diagnosis is improving due to pre-natal screening and pre-natal diagnosis, there remains an unaccounted number of boys and men who have this variation and may not be aware.

For families with children and adults affected by XXYY, daily challenges abound in the areas of physical health, learning, behavior and launch to adulthood. Due to lack of information informed by research, no guidelines currently exist to help guide health care providers, educators and social services for how to preserve and maintain best function and quality of life for boys, men with XXYY and their families.

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2018-07-26T14:54:53-04:00Categories: 48,XXYY|

Klinefelter Syndrome and Other Sex Chromosomal Aneuploidies

Article Title: Klinefelter syndrome and other sex chromosomal aneuploidies

Author: Jeannie Visootsak and John M. Graham Jr.

Date of Publication: October 24, 2006

The term Klinefelter syndrome (KS) describes a group of chromosomal disorder in which there is at least one extra X chromosome to a normal male karyotype, 46,XY. XXY aneuploidy is the most common disorder of sex chromosomes in humans, with prevalence of one in 500 males. Other sex chromosomal aneuploidies have also been described, although they are much less frequent, with 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY being present in 1 per 17,000 to 1 per 50,000 male births. The incidence of 49,XXXXY is 1 per 85,000 to 100,000 male births. In addition, 46,XX males also exist and it is caused by translocation of Y material including sex determining region (SRY) to the X chromosome during paternal meiosis. Formal cytogenetic analysis is necessary to make a definite diagnosis, and more obvious differences in physical features tend to be associated with increasing numbers of sex chromosomes. If the diagnosis is not made prenatally, 47,XXY males may present with a variety of subtle clinical signs that are age-related. In infancy, males with 47,XXY may have chromosomal evaluations done for hypospadias, small phallus or cryptorchidism, developmental delay. The school-aged child may present with language delay, learning disabilities, or behavioral problems. The older child or adolescent may be discovered during an endocrine evaluation for delayed or incomplete pubertal development with eunuchoid body habitus, gynecomastia, and small testes. Adults are often evaluated for infertility or breast malignancy. Androgen replacement therapy should begin at puberty, around age 12 years, in increasing dosage sufficient to maintain age appropriate serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The effects on physical and cognitive development increase with the number of extra Xs, and each extra X is associated with an intelligence quotient (IQ) decrease of approximately 15–16 points, with language most affected, particularly expressive language skills.

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2018-09-06T12:19:54-04:00Categories: 47,XXY (Klinefelter), 48,XXYY, Other Variations|