Article Title: What microRNAs could tell us about the human X chromosome
Authors: Di Palo, Siniscalchi, Salerno, Russo, Gravholt and Potenza
Date of Publication: April 30, 2020
“MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small-non coding RNAs endowed with great regulatory power, thus playing key roles not only in almost all physiological pathways, but also in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Surprisingly, genomic distribution analysis revealed the highest density of miRNA sequences on the X chromosome; this evolutionary conserved mammalian feature equips females with a larger miRNA machinery than males. However, miRNAs contribution to some X-related conditions, properties or functions is still poorly explored. With the aim to support and focus research in the field, this review analyzes the literature and databases about X-linked miRNAs, trying to understand how miRNAs could contribute to emerging gender-biased functions and pathological mechanisms, such as immunity and cancer. A fine map of miRNA sequences on the X chromosome is reported, and their known functions are discussed; in addition, bioinformatics functional analyses of the whole X-linked miRNA targetome (predicted and validated) were performed. The emerging scenario points to different gaps in the knowledge that should be filled with future experimental investigations, also in terms of possible implications and pathological perspectives for X chromosome aneuploidy syndromes, such as Turner and Klinefelter syndromes.”
In 2015, the AXYS Board of Directors voted to approve the development of the AXYS Clinical and Research Consortium (ACRC). The two goals that AXYS defined at that time were to improve the availability and the quality of services to the X&Y variation community. As the ACRC grew, the original goals were refined to be as follows:
Make life easier for those seeking evaluation and treatment.
Bring consistency to treatment that is consensus and/or evidence-based.
Advance the overall X&Y variation field through coordinated efforts including research.
Bring clinical excellence to the field of X&Y variations.
Though each clinic operates independently, as members of a consortium, they collaborate with one another, share informational resources, and have the opportunity to participate in joint research projects.
In addition, AXYS organizes annual meetings of the consortium at which members meet to discuss topics important to the X&Y chromosome variation community. AXYS works to ensure that all families impacted by any of the chromosome variations have access to the best available evaluation and treatment or treatment recommendations.
Timeline of the ACRC
(Click on the year to see the accomplishments for that year.)
Article Title: The Expert in the Room: Parental Advocacy for Children with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies
Authors: Richardson, Riggan, and Allyse
Date of Publication: November 2, 2020
“Owing to fragmentation in the medical system, many parents of children with disabilities report taking on a care coordinator and advocate role. The parental advocacy and care coordination requirements are further amplified in this population because of a lack of awareness about sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) in medical and social services settings, as well as the complex needs of affected children. This burden disproportionately affects mothers and low-resource families as a result of gendered ideas of parenthood and social stratification in resource access. The aim of this study is to understand the unique parental burdens of SCAs and family support needs.”
Article Title: Counseling in Pediatric Populations at Risk for Infertility and/or Sexual Function Concerns
Authors: Nahata, Quinn, and Tishelman
Date of Publication: July 30, 2018
“Health care providers and parents report challenges in knowing how and when to discuss these issues. In this context, the goal of this clinical report is to review evidence and considerations for providers related to information sharing about impaired fertility and sexual function in pediatric patients attributable to congenital and acquired conditions or treatments.”
Article Title: Rare sex chromosome variation 48,XXYY: An integrative review
Authors: Blumling, Martyn, Talboy, and Close
Date of Publication: April 9, 2020
“48,XXYY presents with a wide spectrum of physical, psychological, and neurocognitive symptoms, and frequently requires complex interdisciplinary care. In order to better understand this disorder and to appropriately treat the individuals affected by it, future research should focus on experimental studies and research that utilizes a variety of methods, including participant interviews and patient-report surveys.”
Article Title: The Association of Motor Skills and Adaptive Functioning in XXY/Klinefelter and XXYY Syndromes
Authors: Tartaglia, Davis, Martin, Cordeiro, and Richardson
Date of Publication: December 28, 2018
“Both conditions have been previously associated with motor delays and motor skills deficits. We aimed to describe and compare motor skills in males with XXY and XXYY syndromes, and to analyze associations with age, cognitive abilities, and adaptive functioning.”
“As a School of Nursing doctoral student, Amy Blumling provides much-needed care to a special patient population at Emory Healthcare. Twice monthly, she and other providers see patients at the eXtraordinarY Clinic, the Southeast’s only clinic for children with sex chromosome disorders.”
Due to speech and language delays my son started in special education preschool. When my son entered kindergarten, his teacher saw similarities between Kent and another boy who was diagnosed with XXXXY. We took her advice and got genetic testing for our son.
We learned back in 1994 that our son did not just have one extra X as we suspected but has an extra X and an extra Y; he has XXYY.
Our doctors suggested we not read the older literature that painted a horrid picture for our son but instead told us to contact KS&A and join the support group. As it turned out, Melissa Alystock lived less than a mile from us. Our kids attended the same schools.
Melissa Alystock started holding conferences to gather people with X and Y variations together. She sought and received grants from pharmaceutical companies to support these events. In addition, she gained the professional support and services of health care professionals who met with families at these events. It was life changing for many to meet with a doctor, genetic counselor or other professional that was knowledgeable about X and Y conditions.
Melissa and her husband needed help managing this fast growing organization so she asked me to join the board and then I served as a moderator for the listserv. I saw the challenges trying to meet the needs of grown men with X and Y variations as well as simultaneously meeting the needs of parents of younger children without overwhelming them. There is only so much many of us can process at once, so some families step back from support groups but then later rejoin either when they need assistance or when they are in a position to offer it.
I financially support AXYS (The XXYY Project) and encourage my family to do so also. This assures there is help, information and research for all when it is needed.
Article Title: Social cognition and underlying cognitive mechanisms in children with an extra X chromosome: a comparison with autism spectrum disorder
Authors: S. van Rijn, L. Stockmann, G. van Buggenhout, C. van Ravenswaaij-Arts, and H. Swaab
Date of Publication: 2014
This 2014 paper by Dr. Sophie van Rijn is an excellent study on the Theory of Mind and “the reported social behavioral difficulties in individuals with an extra X chromosome include shyness, social withdrawal, social anxiety, social immaturity, difficulties in peer relationships, social impulsivity, communication difficulties, reduced social assertiveness and difficulties with ‘being sensitive and responsive to the feelings and rights of others.”
“Individuals with an extra X chromosome are at increased risk for autism symptoms. This study is the first to assess theory of mind and facial affect labeling in children with an extra X chromosome.”
Article Title: Autism Spectrum Disorder in Males with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: XXY/Klinefelter syndrome, XYY, and XXYY
Authors: Nicole R Tartaglia, MD, Rebecca Wilson, PsyD, Judith S. Miller, PhD, Jessica Rafalko, Lisa Cordeiro, MS, Shanlee Davis, MD, David Hessl, PhD, and Judith Ross, MD
Date of Publication: April 2017
“The rate of ASD in children with SCA in this study was higher than expected compared to the general population. Males with Y chromosome aneuploidy (XYY and XXYY) were 4.8 times more likely to have a diagnosis of ASD than the XXY/KS group, and 20 times more likely than males in the general population based on the 2010 Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimate of 1 in 42 males. ASD is an important consideration when evaluating social difficulties for children with SCA. Studies of males with SCA and Y-chromosome genes may provide insight into idiopathic ASD and male predominance in ASD.”