Article Title: A review of neurocognitive functioning of children with sex chromosome trisomies: Identifying targets for early intervention
Authors: Van Rijn, Urbanus, and Swaab
Date of Publication: July 2, 2019
“Results of the reviewed studies show that although traditionally, the focus has been on language and intelligence (IQ) in this population, recent studies suggest that executive functioning and social cognition may also be significantly affected already in childhood. These findings suggest that neuropsychological screening of children diagnosed with SCT should be extended, to also include executive functioning and social cognition. Knowledge about these neurocognitive risks is important to improve clinical care and help identify targets for early support and intervention programs to accommodate for the needs of individuals with SCT.”
Article Title: The behavioral profile of children aged 1–5 years with sex chromosome trisomy (47,XXX, 47,XXY, 47,XYY)
Authors: Van Rijn, Tartaglia, Urbanus, Swaab, and Cordeiro
Date of Publication: May 20, 2020
“Collectively, these results demonstrate the importance of behavioral screening for behavioral problems in routine clinical care for children with SCT from a young age. Social–emotional problems may require special attention, as these problems seem most prominent, showing increased risk across the full age range, and with these problems occurring regardless of the timing of diagnosis, and across all three SCT karyotypes.”
In 2015, the AXYS Board of Directors voted to approve the development of the AXYS Clinical and Research Consortium (ACRC). The two goals that AXYS defined at that time were to improve the availability and the quality of services to the X&Y variation community. As the ACRC grew, the original goals were refined to be as follows:
Make life easier for those seeking evaluation and treatment.
Bring consistency to treatment that is consensus and/or evidence-based.
Advance the overall X&Y variation field through coordinated efforts including research.
Bring clinical excellence to the field of X&Y variations.
Though each clinic operates independently, as members of a consortium, they collaborate with one another, share informational resources, and have the opportunity to participate in joint research projects.
In addition, AXYS organizes annual meetings of the consortium at which members meet to discuss topics important to the X&Y chromosome variation community. AXYS works to ensure that all families impacted by any of the chromosome variations have access to the best available evaluation and treatment or treatment recommendations.
Timeline of the ACRC
(Click on the year to see the accomplishments for that year.)
Article Title: The Expert in the Room: Parental Advocacy for Children with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies
Authors: Richardson, Riggan, and Allyse
Date of Publication: November 2, 2020
“Owing to fragmentation in the medical system, many parents of children with disabilities report taking on a care coordinator and advocate role. The parental advocacy and care coordination requirements are further amplified in this population because of a lack of awareness about sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) in medical and social services settings, as well as the complex needs of affected children. This burden disproportionately affects mothers and low-resource families as a result of gendered ideas of parenthood and social stratification in resource access. The aim of this study is to understand the unique parental burdens of SCAs and family support needs.”
Article Title: Diminished Ovarian Reserve in Girls and Adolescents with Trisomy X Syndrome
Authors: Davis, Soares, Howell, Cree-Green, Buyers, Johnson, and Tartaglia
Date of Publication: June 2020
“An extra X chromosome occurs in ~ 1 in 1000 females, resulting in a karyotype 47,XXX also known as trisomy X syndrome (TXS). Women with TXS appear to be at increased risk for premature ovarian insufficiency; however, very little research on this relationship has been conducted. The objective of this case-control study is to compare ovarian function, as measured by anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels, between girls with TXS and controls. Serum AMH concentrations were compared between 15 females with TXS (median age 13.4 years) and 26 controls (median age 15.1 years). Females with TXS had significantly lower serum AMH compared to controls (0.7 ng/mL (IQR 0.2–1.7) vs 2.7 (IQR 1.3–4.8), p < 0.001). Additionally, girls with TXS were much more likely to have an AMH below the 2.5th percentile for age with 67% of them meeting these criteria (OR 11, 95% CI 2.3–42). Lower AMH concentrations in females with TXS may represent an increased risk for primary ovarian insufficiency in these patients and potentially a narrow window of opportunity to pursue fertility preservation options. Additional research is needed to understand the natural history of low AMH concentrations and future risk of premature ovarian insufficiency in girls with TXS.”
Article Title: The epidemiology of sex chromosome abnormalities
Authors: Berglund, Stochholm, and Gravholt
Date of Publication: May 11, 2020
“Sex chromosome abnormalities (SCAs) are characterized by gain or loss of entire sex chromosomes or parts of sex chromosomes with the best-known syndromes being Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, 47,XXX syndrome, and 47,XYY syndrome. Since these syndromes were first described more than 60 years ago, several papers have reported on diseases and health related problems, neurocognitive deficits, and social challenges among affected persons. However, the generally increased comorbidity burden with specific comorbidity patterns within and across syndromes as well as early death of affected persons was not recognized until the last couple of decades, where population-based epidemiological studies were undertaken. Moreover, these epidemiological studies provided knowledge of an association between SCAs and a negatively reduced socioeconomic status in terms of education, income, retirement, cohabitation with a partner and parenthood. This review is on the aspects of epidemiology in Turner, Klinefelter, 47,XXX and 47,XYY syndrome.”
Article Title: Early neurodevelopmental and medical profile in children with sex chromosome trisomies: Background for the prospective eXtraordinarY babies study to identify early risk factors and targets for intervention
Authors: Tartaglia, Howell, Davis, Kowal, Tanda, Brown, Boada, Alston, Crawford, Thompson, Van Rijn, Wilson, Janusz, and Ross
Date of Publication: May 13, 2020
“This study aims to better describe and compare the natural history of SCT conditions, identify predictors of positive and negative outcomes in SCT, evaluate developmental and autism screening measures commonly used in primary care practices for the SCT population, and build a rich data set linked to a bank of biological samples for future study. Results from this study and ongoing international research efforts will inform evidence-based care and improve health and neurodevelopmental outcomes.”
Article Title: Sex differences in psychiatric disorders: what we can learn from sex chromosome aneuploidies
Authors: Green, Flash, and Reiss
Date of Publication: January 2019
“The study of individuals with sex chromosome aneuploidies provides a promising framework for studying sexual dimorphism in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Here we will review and contrast four syndromes caused by variation in the number of sex chromosomes: Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, XYY syndrome, and XXX syndrome. Overall we describe an increased rate of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder, along with the increased rates of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders in one or more of these conditions. In addition to contributing unique insights about sexual dimorphism in neuropsychiatric disorders, awareness of the increased risk of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in sex chromosome aneuploidies can inform appropriate management of these common genetic disorders.”
Article Title: Changes in the cohort composition of Turner syndrome and severe non-diagnosis of Klinefelter, 47,XXX and 47,XYY syndrome: a nationwide cohort study
Authors: Claus H. Gravholt, MD, PhD et al
Date of Publication: January 14, 2019
“The prevalence of TS is higher than previously identified, and the karyotypic composition of the TS population is changing. Non-diagnosis is extensive among KS, Triple X and Double Y, whereas all TS seem to become diagnosed. The diagnostic activity has increased among TS with other karyotypes than 45,X as well as among KS and Double Y.”
Article Title: A review of neurocognitive functioning and risk for psychopathology in sex chromosome trisomy (47,XXY, 47,XXX, 47,XYY)
Authors: Sophie van Rijn, PhD
Date of Publication: March 2019
This paper reviews studies that illustrate an increased risk for social, emotional and behavioral problems in individuals with 47,XXY, 47,XXX, or 47,XYY. The primary focus of research in this area has been on language and learning problems; more recent research suggests that impairments in executive functioning, social cognition and emotion regulation may also be key factors underlying the risk for behavioral problems and mental disorders. Directions for future research are provided.