Diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome (KS) allows for timely beneficial interventions across the lifespan. Most cases currently remain undiagnosed because of low awareness of KS amongst health professionals, the hesitancy of men to seek medical attention and its variable clinical presentation. Given these barriers, population-based genetic screening provides an approach to comprehensive and early detection. We examine current evidence regarding risks and benefits of diagnosing KS at different ages.

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