Article Title: Executive function in XXY: Comparison of performance-based measures and rating scales

Authors: Janusz, Harrison, C. Boada, Cordeiro, Howell, Tartaglia, and R. Boada

Date of Publication: June 2020

“Few studies have systematically assessed executive functioning (EF) skills in boys with XXY, and these are limited by small samples and restricted EF assessment. This study used a broader battery of performance-based measures as well as parent-rating scales of EF in 77 boys and adolescents with XXY (mean age = 12.5 years), recruited from a clinical trial and an outpatient clinic. Exploratory factor analyses were used to create EF domains from performance-based measures, and similar domains were measured using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function and Conners Parent-Rating Scales. The boys with XXY showed a distinct EF profile, with the greatest deficit in attention and more moderate deficits in working memory, switching, and planning/ problem solving. Parent ratings showed similar challenges, as well as impaired inhibition. Independent sample t-tests showed no difference on performance measures between boys diagnosed or not diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although parents of boys diagnosed with ADHD reported more difficulties. There were no differences on performance-based tests between those diagnosed pre- and postnatally, although parents of postnatally diagnosed boys reported more metacognitive problems. Language deficits, cognition, and socio-economic status did not account for EF deficits.”

Read more