47,XXY (Klinefelter)

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Metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in Klinefelter syndrome

Article Title: Metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in Klinefelter syndrome

Authors: Spaziani and Radicioni

Date of Publication: June 2020

“Klinefelter syndrome (KS), which normally presents with a 47,XXY karyotype, is the most common sex chromosome disorder in males. It is also the most common genetic cause of male infertility. KS subjects are typically tall, with small and firm testes, gynecomastia, broad hips, and sparse body hair, although a less evident presentation is also possible. KS is also characterized by a high prevalence of hypogonadism, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this article is to systematically review metabolic and the cardiovascular risk factors in KS patients. Hypogonadism has an important role in the pathogenesis of the changes in body composition (particularly visceral obesity) and hence of insulin resistance and MetS, but the association between KS and MetS may go beyond hypogonadism alone. From childhood, KS patients may show an increase in visceral fat with a reduction in lean body mass and an increase in glucose and impaired fat metabolism. Their increased incidence of congenital anomalies, epicardial adipose tissue, and thromboembolic disease suggests they have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. There is conflicting evidence on the effects of testosterone therapy on body composition and metabolism.”

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2020-11-05T15:04:15-05:00Categories: 47,XXY (Klinefelter)|

Minipuberty in Klinefelter syndrome: Current status and future directions

Article Title: Minipuberty in Klinefelter syndrome: Current status and future directions

Authors: Aksglaede, Davis, Ross, and Juul

Date of Publication: June 2020

“Klinefelter syndrome is highly underdiagnosed and diagnosis is often delayed. With the introduction of non-invasive prenatal screening, the diagnostic pattern will require an updated description of the clinical and biochemical presentation of infants with Klinefelter syndrome. In the first months of life, the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG)-axis is transiently activated in healthy males during the so-called minipuberty. This period represents a “window of opportunity” for evaluation of the HPG-axis before puberty and without stimulation tests. Infants with Klinefelter syndrome present with a hormonal surge during the minipuberty. However, only a limited number of studies exist, and the results are contradictory. Further studies are needed to clarify whether infants with Klinefelter syndrome present with impaired testosterone production during the minipuberty. The aim of this review is to describe the clinical and biochemical characteristics of the neonate and infant with Klinefelter syndrome with special focus on the minipuberty and to update the clinical recommendations for Klinefelter syndrome during infancy.”

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2020-11-05T14:58:50-05:00Categories: 47,XXY (Klinefelter)|

Psychological functioning, brain morphology, and functional neuroimaging in Klinefelter syndrome

Article Title: Psychological functioning, brain morphology, and functional neuroimaging in Klinefelter syndrome

Authors: Skakkebæk, Gravholt, Chang, Moore, and Wallentin

Date of Publication: June 2020

“Klinefelter syndrome (KS; 47,XXY) impacts neurodevelopment and is associated with an increased risk of cognitive, psychological and social impairments, although significant heterogeneity in the neurodevelopmental profile is seen. KS is characterized by a specific cognitive profile with predominantly verbal deficits, preserved function in non-verbal and visuo-spatial domains, executive dysfunction and social impairments, and by an increased vulnerability toward psychiatric disorders. The neurobiological underpinnings of the observed neuropsychological profile have not been established. A distinct pattern of both global and regional brain volumetric differences has been demonstrated in addition to preliminary findings of functional brain alterations related to auditory, motor, language and social processing. When present, the combination of cognitive, psychological and social challenges has the potential to negatively affect quality of life. This review intends to provide information and insight to the neuropsychological outcome and brain correlates of KS. Possible clinical intervention and future directions of research will be discussed.”

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2020-11-05T14:39:25-05:00Categories: 47,XXY (Klinefelter)|

Executive function in XXY: Comparison of performance-based measures and rating scales

Article Title: Executive function in XXY: Comparison of performance-based measures and rating scales

Authors: Janusz, Harrison, C. Boada, Cordeiro, Howell, Tartaglia, and R. Boada

Date of Publication: June 2020

“Few studies have systematically assessed executive functioning (EF) skills in boys with XXY, and these are limited by small samples and restricted EF assessment. This study used a broader battery of performance-based measures as well as parent-rating scales of EF in 77 boys and adolescents with XXY (mean age = 12.5 years), recruited from a clinical trial and an outpatient clinic. Exploratory factor analyses were used to create EF domains from performance-based measures, and similar domains were measured using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function and Conners Parent-Rating Scales. The boys with XXY showed a distinct EF profile, with the greatest deficit in attention and more moderate deficits in working memory, switching, and planning/ problem solving. Parent ratings showed similar challenges, as well as impaired inhibition. Independent sample t-tests showed no difference on performance measures between boys diagnosed or not diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although parents of boys diagnosed with ADHD reported more difficulties. There were no differences on performance-based tests between those diagnosed pre- and postnatally, although parents of postnatally diagnosed boys reported more metacognitive problems. Language deficits, cognition, and socio-economic status did not account for EF deficits.”

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2020-11-05T13:05:33-05:00Categories: 47,XXY (Klinefelter)|Tags: |

High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk features in adolescents with 47,XXY/Klinefelter syndrome

Article Title: High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk features in adolescents with 47,XXY/Klinefelter syndrome

Authors: Davis, DeKlotz, Nadeau, Kelsey, Zeitler, and Tartaglia

Date of Publication: June 2020

“Klinefelter syndrome (KS) occurs in 1:600 males and is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Up to 50% of men with KS have metabolic syndrome, a cluster of features conferring increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These cardiometabolic (CM) risk features have not been studied in adolescents with KS. The objective of this cohort study was to compare CM risk features in adolescents with KS to controls matched for sex, age, and BMI z score.”

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2020-11-05T12:49:50-05:00Categories: 47,XXY (Klinefelter)|

Counseling in Pediatric Populations at Risk for Infertility and/or Sexual Function Concerns

Article Title: Counseling in Pediatric Populations at Risk for Infertility and/or Sexual Function Concerns

Authors: Nahata, Quinn, and Tishelman

Date of Publication: July 30, 2018

“Health care providers and parents report challenges in knowing how and when to discuss these issues. In this context, the goal of this clinical report is to review evidence and considerations for providers related to information sharing about impaired fertility and sexual function in pediatric patients attributable to congenital and acquired conditions or treatments.”

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2020-10-09T12:25:06-04:00Categories: 47,XXY (Klinefelter), 48,XXYY, Other Variations, XXXY|

European Academy of Andrology Guidelines on Klinefelter Syndrome

Article Title: European Academy of Andrology (EAA) Guidelines on Klinefelter Syndrome

Authors: Zitzmann, Aksglaede, Corona, Isidori, Juul, T’Sjoen, Kliesch, D’Hauwers, Toppari, Słowikowska-Hilczer, Tüttelmann, and Ferlin

Date of Publication: September 22, 2020

“These guidelines provide recommendations and suggestions to care for patients with KS in various developmental stages ranging from childhood and adolescence to adulthood. This advice is based on recent research data and respective evaluations as well as validations performed by a group of experts.”

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2020-09-29T11:08:05-04:00Categories: 47,XXY (Klinefelter)|

Marked Increase in Incident Gynecomastia: A 20-year National Registry Study 1998-2017

Article Title: Marked Increase in Incident Gynecomastia: A 20-year National Registry Study 1998-2017

Authors: Koch, Bräuner, Busch, Hickey, and Juul

Date of Publication: July 7, 2020

“The incidence of gynecomastia has dramatically increased over the last 20 years implying that the endogenous or exogenous sex steroid environment has changed, which is associated with other adverse health consequences in men such as an increased risk of prostate cancer, metabolic syndrome, diabetes type 2 or cardiovascular disorders.”

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2020-08-07T15:40:37-04:00Categories: 47,XXY (Klinefelter)|Tags: |

Fertility management of Klinefelter syndrome

Article Title: Fertility management of Klinefelter syndrome

Authors: Fainberg, Hayden and Schlegel

Date of Publication: October 7, 2019

“Individuals with KS have a relatively good prognosis for sperm recovery compared to other men with idiopathic NOA. Surgical success is heavily dependent upon surgical technique and the experience of the andrology/embryology team tasked with the identification and use of testicular sperm.”

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2020-07-28T13:00:03-04:00Categories: 47,XXY (Klinefelter)|Tags: |

Executive function in XXY: Comparison of performance-based measures and rating scales

Article Title: Executive function in XXY: Comparison of performance-based measures and rating scales

Authors: Janusz, Harrison, Boada, Cordeiro, Howell, Tartaglia, and Boada

Date of Publication: May 11, 2020

“Few studies have systematically assessed executive functioning (EF) skills in boys with XXY, and these are limited by small samples and restricted EF assessment. This study used a broader battery of performance-based measures as well as parent-rating scales of EF in 77 boys and adolescents with XXY (mean age = 12.5 years), recruited from a clinical trial and an outpatient clinic. Exploratory factor analyses were used to create EF domains from performance-based measures, and similar domains were measured using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function and Conners Parent-Rating Scales. The boys with XXY showed a distinct EF profile, with the greatest deficit in attention and more moderate deficits in working memory, switching, and planning/problem solving.”

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2020-06-16T17:37:09-04:00Categories: 47,XXY (Klinefelter)|Tags: |
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